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Archives In Brief 118 - Nurses

This Archives in Brief provides a brief overview of the major sources held by State Records that relate to nurses in New South Wales. Other records may be identified in Archives Investigator and Short Guide No. 10: Professions and Occupations.

Coast Hospital Ambulance (horse-drawn) with nurse

Historical background

General nursing duties in the earliest days of the Colony were undertaken by untrained convicts.
Male attendants undertook the supervision of male patients, their dietary needs and burial. Female attendants undertook similar duties with the female patients.[1] Attention to hygiene standards was almost non- existent.

Free settlers were generally appointed to the more prominent positions.

Jane Sims arrived free on the Friends in 1811 to take up the post of Midwife to the General Hospital. Her wages were paid from the Police Fund.

Midwives were also employed in a broad range of domestic situations.

The services of Mrs Frost and Mrs Reynolds, Elizabeth Macquarie’s midwives at the birth of her son Lachlan in 1814, were so appreciated by Governor Macquarie that he gave a gift of five pounds to each.[2]

When the Sydney Infirmary (later to be known as Sydney Hospital) opened in 1816, its staff consisted of an overseer, an attendant clerk, a gatekeeper, a matron and a number of male and female care givers.[3]

Over the next few decades staffing numbers increased and there was a growing awareness of the importance of cleanliness and hygiene as a weapon against infection and disease.

In practice, however, improvements in health care were minimal and conditions were often squalid.

Bathsheba Ghost’s appointment as Matron of the Sydney Infirmary in 1852 was significant in more ways than one.

Ghost had arrived in Sydney in 1839 on the Planter to serve a 14 year sentence for receiving stolen goods. Prior to her conviction she had been employed as a ladies’ nursery maid.

Ghost was one of a very few working class women of convict background to be appointed to a position of authority in the colony at that period.[4]

During her time as Matron from 1852 until her death in 1866, Ghost worked hard to raise the standards of nursing care and to provide rudimentary on the job nursing training under very challenging conditions.

In 1868, at the behest of Henry Parkes, Nightingale trained nurse Lucy Osburn arrived from London to take up the position of Lady Superintendent at the Sydney Infirmary.

Accompanying Osburn were five probationer nurses trained at the same institution. All were to be employed by the New South Wales Government for an initial period of three years.

Osburn devoted sixteen years of her life to the Sydney Infirmary eventually retiring in 1884. During this period she established the Nightingale system of nursing in Sydney, and in doing so became an instigator of significant nursing reform throughout the Colony.

Major changes included the incorporation of nursing training sessions into the daily hospital routine, the raising of hygiene standards, the introduction of uniforms and the emergence of nursing as an exclusively female occupation.[5]

The first formal training schools for nurses in New South Wales were established at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and at St Vincents Hospital in 1882.

The training period was two years and increased to three years in 1903.

Each hospital conducted its own nursing examinations. The first external formal nursing examinations were held in 1906 under the auspices of the Australasian Trained Nurses’ Association.

The Crown Street Women’s Hospital opened in 1893.

As part of its aim to raise standards of maternity care the Women’s Hospital provided instruction to women who had previously acted as midwives without any medical certification.

The first Baby Health Centre was opened at Alexandria in Sydney in 1914.

A Baby Clinics, pre-maternity and Home Nursing Board was established in July 1914. This was a non-statutory body which appeared to oversee the Baby Health Clinics.

The Nurses Registration Act (No. 37 1924) hailed the commencement of government regulation of the profession in New South Wales.

Under this act the Nurses Registration Board was responsible for the administration of registration examinations, the regulation of registration certificates and the maintenance of registers of qualified nurses.

Since its inception in 1924 the size of the Nurses Registration Board has increased and its composition has changed in favour of more nursing members.

It's functions have also expanded under the Nurses Act (No.9 1991) to include the promotion and maintenance of professional standards of nursing practice in NSW and the promotion of education for nurses.

Select list of sources

Early sources

Index to Colonial Secretary’s papers, 1788-1825 *ARK

To locate the early records of nurses consult the index under ‘nurses’, ‘midwives’ and ‘hospitals’ as well as under individual names. The Colonial Secretary's 1788-1825 index is available on our website.

Colonial Secretary’s papers, 1826+

These records contain correspondence relating to nursing and nurses working in both Sydney and country areas.

The Colonial Secretary’s special bundle –Nurses, Sydney Hospital 1866-68
NRS 906 [4/768.2]

Contains correspondence about the establishment of the nurses’ school at The Infirmary.

Colonial Secretary’s letter received 79/6184 NRS 905 [1/2450]

Lucy Osburn’s response to a complaint of Mrs Simmons regarding her treatment as a patient of the Sydney Infirmary in 1879.

Musters and census

The 1805-06, 1814, 1822, 1823-25 musters and the 1828 Census can all be searched by occupation using such terms as ‘nurse’, ‘matron’, ‘midwife’ and ‘wardsman’.

Nurses in NSW government employment

Returns of the Colony, 1822-57, NRS 1286

These returns provide the following details for matrons of government hospitals: date of appointment, by whom appointed and annual salary.

Public Service Lists, 1858+, NRS 1286

These lists contain the following information relating to permanent government employees: name, office, date of appointment and salary.

Public Service Board: Employees’ history cards, 1911-68, NRS 12395 [8/2599-733]

The following information is provided: date of birth, date of employment, Department and division, designation, salary, date of resignation and remarks.

Parramatta Psychiatric Centre: Abstracts and acquittances of salaries and allowances, 1850-62, NRS 5130 [6/5347part – 5348]

The information given includes situation, name, date of original appointment to the public service, date of appointment to present situation, period, number of days, rate, salary amount, signatures, and number of cheque.

Parramatta Psychiatric Centre: Staff registers, 1877-95, NRS 5131 [19/13019 – 21]

These volumes provide a monthly record of salaries paid to all staff members, together with the following information (given less frequently): situation, date of employment, age, social condition, whether resident, religion, remarks (eg. notes on disciplinary action taken against staff members, notes on retirement, resignation etc.).

Board of Health: Salary registers, 1895-1913, NRS 610 [3/5620 part – 5622 part]

These registers record monthly payments made to Board members and staff under the control of the Board.
Board of Health: Salary registers, 1913-37, NRS 4838 [3/5622 part – 5631]

NSW Government Gazettes 1928 – 1941

Nurses are usually indexed in second or third volume of each year under ‘Nurses Registration Act – Nurses registered Under’. List of nurses divided into four categories – General Nurses, Midwives, Mental Nurses, Infant Nurses. The lists for 1926-29 and 1933 have been extracted and are available in the reading room as COD 602. Lists for 1939 and 1941 are available as COD 603.

Training records

Public Service Board: Selection of pupil nurses, Coast Hospital 32/3210, 1932 [8/883]

Crown Street Hospital: Indexes of nursing staff, c. 1947-c. 1965

The following information is recorded: name, address, date of commencement and date of leaving.

Crown Street Hospital: Nurses registers, c. 1943-1965

The following information is recorded: name, address, date of entry, date of examination, remarks and signature.
For further information on the record series held relating to the nursing staff of Crown Street Women’s Hospital please see Archives in Brief 88.

Nurses Registration Board

Certificates of registration and miscellaneous certificates, c. 1912-56, NRS 10859 [12/29]
Register of nursing certificates, 1920-33, NRS 10860 [8/2742.3]

This register gives the following particulars for nursing certificates issued: if attendant or nurse; name; hospital; year of educational test; first year; second year; third year; and date of certificate.

Register of general nurses, 1926-54, NRS 10855, Reels 2146 and 2620

The following information is recorded: name, hospital trained at, certificate number, date of registration, records number, and remarks.

Register of mid-wives, 1926-54, NRS 10856, Reels 2146 and 2620

The following information is recorded: name, hospital trained at, certificate number, date of registration or renewal, records number, and remarks.

Register of infants’ nurses, 1926-54, NRS 10857, Reel 2620

The following information is given: name, hospital trained at, certificate number, date of registration, records number, and remarks.

Register of psychiatric nurses, 1926-54, NRS 10858, Reel 2620

The following information is given: name, hospital trained at, certificate number, date of registration, records number, and remarks.

Baby Health Centres

Papers relating to the development of baby health centres and the Division of Maternal and Baby Welfare, 1914 – 39, NRS 4866 [2/8566.2]

Reports of staffing of baby health centres, 1939-47 NRS 4877 [7/9998 – 10000]

These volumes include lists of staff at baby health centres and dates of appointment.

Photographs of the Newtown, Alexandria and Bourke Street Baby Clinics, 1914 NRS 4873 (See Photo Investigator)

The photographs include internal and external views of the clinics, mothers and babies in waiting rooms, babies receiving attention and mothers holding babies being instructed by the nurses.

Register of Country Women’s Association Baby Health Centres, c. 1922 – 38, NRS 4921 [5/5845]
Infantile statistics, 1913-14, NRS 4919 [5/5846.1]

This volume represents the daily record of the two trained nurses entrusted with the duty of visiting morthers of new born infants in the Sydney city and inner suburban areas.

Other sources

Sydney hospital, Macquarie Street

Board of Health: Register of private licensed hospitals, 1910-28, NRS 606 [5/5857 – 63]

Under the provisions of the Private Hospitals Act, 1908 all private hospitals were required to be registered and this included maternity hospitals operated by midwives and/or nurses.

Inspector General of Mental Hospitals: Rules and regulations, c. 1890-c. 1939, NRS 5583, [12/3482.2, 5/5878]

Includes rules for nurses for both the Reception House for the Insane, Darlinghurst and Hospitals for the Insane, New South Wales.

Related Sources

The Australasian Trained Nurses' Association (ATNA), Australia's first nursing association, was formed in New South Wales in 1899. ATNA records are held by the Mitchell and Dixson Libraries Manuscripts Collection, State Library of New South Wales.

Further Reading

Australian Dictionary of Biography – both hardcover and online formats can be searched by occupation.

Judith Godden, Lucy Osburn, a lady displaced. Sydney, Sydney University Press, 2006.

Judith Godden, Bathsheba Ghost, Matron of the Sydney Infirmary 1852-66: a Silenced Life. Labour History 87 (2004): 45 pars. 16 Jun. 2009

Jacqueline Bloomfield, The Changing Image of Australian Nursing: 28 pars. 16 Jun 2009

Angela Cushing. ‘Convicts and care giving in colonial Australia’. Nursing History and Politics of Welfare. Eds. Anne Rafferty, Jane Robinson and Ruth Elkan. London, New York: Routledge 1997. pp 107-130.

Access

Researchers should consult the Register of Access Directions to confirm the public availability of records.
State Records’ staff can advise you on the availability of records if they are not listed on the register.
*ARK signifies that the record or guide is part of the Archives Resources Kit and is held by the community access points.

Footnotes

1 Angela Cushing, Convicts and care giving in colonial Australia, p.120
2 John Ritchie, Lachlan Macquarie: A Biography, Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1986 p.141
3 Cushing, op.cit., p.113
4 Judith Godden, Bathsheba Ghost, Matron of the Sydney Infirmary, 1852-66: A Silenced Life, p.1
5 Jacqueline Bloomfield, The Changing Image of Australian Nursing, par8