#OnThisDay 18 September 1797 coal was officially found in the Newcastle region by Lieutenant John Shortland. He was exploring the area around present day Newcastle in search of run-away convicts when he found the coal. By 1801 a convict camp was established to mine for coal. A new settlement on Coal River (Hunter River) started in 1804 and eventually became Newcastle. Military rule in Newcastle ended in 1823.
- See entry in Colonial Secretary's Papers under Newcastle
- See entry in Colonial Secretary's Papers under Coal and Coalmining